Skin thickness

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Research was conducted by Timothi Van Mulder in the framework of his Baekeland PhD mandate (VLAIO) on skin thickness in both adults and children.

In adults aged 18–65 years, the epidermal and dermal thickness at the proximal ventral and dorsal forearm and deltoid region were determined using high-frequency ultrasound. Significant differences in skin thickness were seen for the proximal ventral and dorsal forearm and deltoid region for gender, and BMI. Age only influenced the skin thickness at deltoid region.

The results were used to determine the maximum penetration depth and needle characteristics for the development of VAX-ID®. A needle length of 1.0 mm is best option for intradermal injection at the dorsal forearm.

In children aged aged 8 weeks to 18 years the epidermal and dermal thickness at the proximal ventral and dorsal forearm and at the deltoid region was assessed using high-frequency ultrasound. In children aged 8 weeks to 2 years, the lateral part of the upper leg was assessed as well since it is a commonly used injection site in this population. Significant differences in skin thickness at the PVF, PDF and deltoid region were seen according to age and BMI.

The results were used to determine the maximum penetration depth and needle characteristics for the development of VAX-ID® as well as to ensure an accurate ID injection in children. An optimal needle length of 0.7 mm is advised to guarantee intradermal injection in children at all investigated injection sites.

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